tuk wrote:...cg has been around for 500 years or so & pre-dates science & democracy...
60moo wrote:Some excellent responses all round, and I have to agree with those relating to the "dumbing down" of music.
Don't know about the following though:tuk wrote:...cg has been around for 500 years or so & pre-dates science & democracy...
Overview of the classical guitar's history
During the Middle Ages, guitars with three, four, and five strings were already in use. The Guitarra Latina had curved sides and is thought to have come to Spain from elsewhere in Europe. The so-called Guitarra Morisca, brought to Spain by the Moors, had an oval soundbox and many sound holes on its soundboard. By the 15th century, a four course double-string guitar called the vihuela de mano, half way between the lute and the guitar, appeared and became popular in Spain and spread to Italy; and by the 16th century, a fifth double-string had been added. During this time, composers wrote mostly in tablature notation.
The use of the term âparliamentâ first occurred in 1236 in England. Previously, this group of the kingâs closest advisors had been called the âcouncilâ. After agreeing to the principle of âcommon consentâ in the Magna Carta, King John had to increase the size of this group of advisors and include more commoners. He then had to submit his requests for increased taxation to this newly expanded group. Two distinct groups emerged among the commoners: the landed gentry, and the rich merchants and lawyers.
The word âparliamentâ comes from the French âparlerâ, which means âto talkâ or âto discussâ. English parliamentary procedure, such as Jeffersonâs Manual of Parliamentary Procedure, developed not to facilitate talk, but to facilitate decision-making. Although the British model of parliament, known as the Westminster Model, is held up as the âMother of all Parliamentsâ, it is unique in that it developed over time from tradition, as opposed to being democratically enacted by way of a constitution.
The Parliament of England had its roots in the restrictions on the power of kings written into Magna Carta, which explicitly protected certain rights of the King's subjects, whether free or fettered â and implicitly supported what became English writ of habeas corpus, safeguarding individual freedom against unlawful imprisonment with right to appeal. The first elected parliament was De Montfort's Parliament in England in 1265.
However only a small minority actually had a voice; Parliament was elected by only a few percent of the population, (less than 3% as late as 1780), and the power to call parliament was at the pleasure of the monarch (usually when he or she needed funds). The power of Parliament increased in stages over the succeeding centuries. After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the English Bill of Rights of 1689 was enacted, which codified certain rights and increased the influence of Parliament. The franchise was slowly increased and Parliament gradually gained more power until the monarch became largely a figurehead. As the franchise was increased, it also was made more uniform, as many so-called rotten boroughs, with a handful of voters electing a Member of Parliament, were eliminated in the Reform Act of 1832.
Age of Enlightenment
In the 17th and 18th centuries, the project of modernity, as had been promoted by Bacon and Descartes, led to rapid scientific advance and the successful development of a new type of natural science, mathematical, methodically experimental, and deliberately innovative. Newton and Leibniz succeeded in developing a new physics, now referred to as Newtonian physics, which could be confirmed by experiment and explained in mathematics. Leibniz also incorporated terms from Aristotelian physics, but now being used in a new non-teleological way, for example "energy" and "potential". But in the style of Bacon, he assumed that different types of things all work according to the same general laws of nature, with no special formal or final causes for each type of thing.
60moo wrote:tuk - you used the words 'science' and 'democracy'; not 'rapid scientific advancement' or 'English parliament'.
'Science' didn't start in the 17th century; and 'Democracy' didn't start in the 18th century. You already quoted Aristotelian physics - he was an ancient Greek; and ancient Greece is also where democracy first flourished.
Both of those occurred over 2,000 years ago.
The term comes from the Greek word ÎŽÎ·ÎŒÎżÎșÏÎ±ÏÎŻÎ± (dÄmokratĂa) "rule of the people"
The concept of representative democracy arose largely from ideas and institutions that developed during the European Middle Ages and the Age of Enlightenment and in the American and French Revolutions. The right to vote has been expanded in many jurisdictions over time from relatively narrow groups (such as wealthy men of a particular ethnic group), with New Zealand the first nation to grant universal suffrage for all its citizens in 1893.
60moo wrote:[I'd also be interested in hearing why I think science started 2000 years ago and not say 2010 yrs. But there's a slight hitch. You see, I didn't actually say that. Nor did I imply that.]
60moo wrote:tuk - you used the words 'science' and 'democracy';
Both of those occurred over 2,000 years ago.
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