what you are describing there is basically the knowledge about forms. But to understand those forms, you have to learn some music theory first... in my opinion.
So have a look at the maybe most important piece of Renaissance era, the missa pape marcelli by Palestrina (EVERY kind of instrumental music was kind of... inferior those times...). Study the lines of the single voices, analyse the intervalls, analyse the endings, the scales, the proportion. How did Palestrina build his melodies?
For baroque music: Learn the rules of the figuerd bass. You can learn it on paper, but do it properly... Then analyse the intervals and chords of Bach or Händel pieces and compare it to the Renaissance music. Pieces: Prelude in C (Bach) Water music (Händel) St John Passion (Bach)
Classic and Romantic: Learn to play cadences, invent basses that sound good and improvise on it. You can get a lot of information on Youtube/Internet.
Modern era. Pieces: Sonata facile (Mozart) Doesn't really matter what. Start easy and then go to challenging works.
Modern: Get Information about 12-Tone works, Serialism, and about the harmony of debussy. Analyse harmony in his preludes. Tank you can hear something by Mahler, Schönberg, Messiaen, Cage, Stockhausen, Boulez, Schostakovitsch, Grisey, Murail, Rihm, Scelsi, Ligeti, Henze, Jörg Widmann, Enno Poppe, Kaija Saariaho, Toshio Hosokawa or so.
If you need scores (legal!):