Let's look more closely at Measures 13-16, which I've told you are in C Major, and represent a Direct Modulation to the Relative Major Key.
In a pattern that's already been well-established in this piece, the first beat of a measure typically tells us the harmony for the measure. The "linear" melodic elements are reserved for the 2nd half of each measure in this piece. Those melodic elements have consisted of NCTs or chord tones, most often moving merely by step up or down in a typical melodic fashion (i.e. less of an arpeggio or repeated note).
Our NCTs thus far have been NT and PT.
In Measure 13, hopefully you can see the first beat is a C Major chord.
Now, unlike the previous measures where at least the bass note continues to sound, here there are rests.
We could take that to mean that these notes are not to be considered part of a harmony. Sometimes that can be the case. When that happens, we simply don't put chord symbols or analyze if they're NCTs or not.
However, here, the notes *can be* seen as part of the harmony, and rather than split hairs about whether they are or not (a question more properly left to Music Philosophers and Music Psychologists) let's go ahead and analyze them within the context of a harmony for practice.
So what we have on beat 2 of m. 13 is what are called "parallel thirds". The interval of a 3rd with both notes moving the same direction to the next interval of a 3rd.
One way this appears is as a Melody that is harmonized at the interval of a 3rd, either above or below. In that context, sometimes it's better NOT to see them as harmonic elements but simply a "harmonization of a melody" that serves to "color" the melody, not necessary "create chords" per se.
Here though, they seem to be "elaborating upon the harmony". They are of course melodic, but unlike the similar measures in the earlier section, here the added note seems less of a "melodic coloring" and more a "continuation of the harmony of the measure".
In that light:
the first dyad, E-G, and the last dyad, C-E are both part of a C harmony. As we discovered at the beginning of our analysis, the C-E could even "stand for" a C Chord. The full C Chord on beat 1, the pattern that's been set up in the piece, the fact that C-E is part of the C harmony, only lends that much more credence to the E-G dyad being considered part of the C harmony. And the fact that they're all in such close proximity only strengthens that analysis.
So all we have to do is put parentheses around the D-F dyad and call them NCTs (PT).
m. 13: I; NCTs (F-D) PT
m. 14: ii6
Measure 14 is no problem because the "melodic element" is really just an arpeggiated part of the Dm chord. No worries.
m. 15: ?
This one is a bit trickier.
Remember how I said in certain contexts, we need less information to infer a harmony? Like, for example, at the end of our piece, we don't really need the full Am chord. We hear this whole piece in mostly Am, we have a V as the 2nd to last chord, and we've just heard a bunch of V7-i repetitions (oops, giving away the end
, it's pretty clear that those A notes represent the final Tonic of the piece.
In this case, this is one of those contexts. I haven't gotten too far into yet, but will. This is part of the "functional harmony" but. After a ii6, we kind of expect to hear a V(7) chord. After that, we expect a I. There is a I in m. 16. That makes us really hear m. 15 as a V(7).
Clearly, the first notes spell out a G chord, yes? Also, the last chord of the measure is a G chord, yes?
But this junk in the middle, what's that?
Well, it's parallel thirds again.
Is it a melody harmonized in 3rds which doesn't really need a chordal analysis, or are these still "conveying the idea of the Dominant harmony"?
I think the latter, but again, let's go ahead and analyze them that way for practice.
If you look at the dyad pairs, you have:
; A-C; B-D; C-E; D-F; E-G; F-A; G-B
I want to point out something neat - notice it goes from Leading Tone up the scale to Leading Tone again (B to B) just that the last B is dropped an octave. But can you see how this "line" points to the note C as the ultimate goal?
G-B; B-D and D-F are all part of a G7 chord.
That makes A-C; C-E; E, and A NCTs. They're all PTs.
It doesn't matter that some dyads have both chord tones and some have both NCTS (as m. 13) and some have only on chord tone and one NCT. It also doesn't matter that it "stalls" on the F-A pair for a note. They're still all PTs.
Note, in some of our previous measures I said there was a note that could be interpreted as either a chord tone or a NCT. There is a similar note here but there's a good argument for calling it one over the other. See if you can flesh that out.
So for analysis, we put "V" under the beginning of the measure and just parenthesize and label the NCTs.
You don't need to put the "V" again under the final chord - it's assumed if it's at the beginning of the measure it carries through until a new symbol appears.
Also, if you have a chord like this where the 7th may not appear until later in the measure, you can put "V" at the beginning of the measure and then add the "7" under where the 7th first appears, or you can just put it at the very beginning as "V7" if the 7th doesn't happen too far away (like it might be sketchy to call an entire measure V7 when the 7th only appears as a grace note leading to the next measure at the very last instant).
m. 13: I; NCTs (F-D) PT
m. 14: ii6
m. 15: V; NCTs (lots) PT or, V7; NCTS (fewer) PT
m. 16: I
Now, for m. 16, it "cycles through" positions, but hopefully you can see the "important" positions are on the beat (Beats one and two) so you don't usually have to label this is I - I6/4 - I6 - I.
You can just put "I" in case like this. These are not "functional" inversions (like the V4/2 to i6 was in Carulli) but simply "decorative" ones.
Usually, if people do notate position changes within the *same harmony*, they just put the inversion symbol, with "5" for Root position, so this would look like:
I - 6/4 - 6 - 5
I'm going to stop here for now.
I think I may do the 2nd half in a separate thread which will give us a chance to answer any questions or more fully expand on what was done here.
What you should have learned:
1. How to identify chords with missing/omitted notes.
2. How to discriminate between chord tones and non-chord tones, and how to identify two types of NCTs, the Neighbor Tone (UN and LN) and Passing Tone (PT).
Among other things that will keep coming back
If someone wants to post or link to a PDF of their analysis, that could be instructive. Again, experts, give the beginners a crack first.
Hope you enjoyed this in a thoroughly nerdy way as I do.